A Deep Representation of Longitudinal EMR Data Used for Predicting Readmission to the ICU and Describing Patients-at-Risk

by   Sebastiano Barbieri, et al.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using an attention-based neural network for predicting the risk of readmission within 30 days of discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) based on longitudinal electronic medical record (EMR) data and to leverage the interpretability of the model to describe patients-at-risk. Methods: A "time-aware attention" model was trained using publicly available EMR data (MIMIC-III) associated with 45,298 ICU stays for 33,150 patients. The analysed EMR data included static (patient demographics) and timestamped variables (diagnoses, procedures, medications, and vital signs). Bayesian inference was used to compute the posterior distribution of network weights. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model was compared with several baseline models and evaluated based on average precision, AUROC, and F1-Score. Odds ratios (ORs) associated with an increased risk of readmission were computed for static variables. Diagnoses, procedures, and medications were ranked according to the associated risk of readmission. The model was also used to generate reports with predicted risk (and associated uncertainty) justified by specific diagnoses, procedures, medications, and vital signs. Results: A Bayesian ensemble of 10 time-aware attention models led to the highest predictive accuracy (average precision: 0.282, AUROC: 0.738, F1-Score: 0.353). Male gender, number of recent admissions, age, admission location, insurance type, and ethnicity were all associated with risk of readmission. A longer length of stay in the ICU was found to reduce the risk of readmission (OR: 0.909, 95 patients at risk included those requiring cardiovascular or ventilatory support, those with poor nutritional state, and those for whom standard medical care was not suitable, e.g. due to contraindications to surgery or medications.


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