A Micro-Scale Mobile-Enabled Implantable Medical Sensor

by   Michael Okwori, et al.

Micro-scale implantable medical devices (IMDs) extend the immense benefits of sensors used in health management. However, their development is limited by many requirements and challenges, such as the use of safe materials, size restrictions, safe and efficient powering, and selection of suitable wireless communication technologies. Some of the proposed wireless communication technologies are the terahertz (THz) radio frequency (RF), and ultrasound. This paper investigates the use of magnetic induction-based backscatter communication as an alternative technology. In particular, the goal is to provide a practical design for a micro-scale IMD, referred to as a "biomote" here, that can communicate with a wearable or handheld device such as a cell phone, tablet, or smart watch.First, it is demonstrated that communication via magnetic induction can be established between a biomote and such an external reader. Then, low-power modulation and error-correction coding schemes that can be implemented in micro-scale are explored for the mote. With the aim of increasing reliability and accuracy of measurements through mass deployment of biomotes, suitable low-power media access control (MAC) schemes are proposed, and the feasibility of their implementation in micro-scale is highlighted. Next, assuming that the human body is an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, the performance of the mote is simulated and analyzed. Results of this analysis asserts that a communication range of at least few centimeters is achievable with an acceptable bit error rate. Finally, from the analysis of the MAC schemes, the optimum number of motes to be deployed for various read delays and transmission rates is obtained.


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