A One-Class Classifier for the Detection of GAN Manipulated Multi-Spectral Satellite Images

by   Lydia Abady, et al.

The highly realistic image quality achieved by current image generative models has many academic and industrial applications. To limit the use of such models to benign applications, though, it is necessary that tools to conclusively detect whether an image has been generated synthetically or not are developed. For this reason, several detectors have been developed providing excellent performance in computer vision applications, however, they can not be applied as they are to multispectral satellite images, and hence new models must be trained. In general, two-class classifiers can achieve very good detection accuracies, however they are not able to generalise to image domains and generative models architectures different than those used during training. For this reason, in this paper, we propose a one-class classifier based on Vector Quantized Variational Autoencoder 2 (VQ-VAE 2) features to overcome the limitations of two-class classifiers. First, we emphasize the generalization problem that binary classifiers suffer from by training and testing an EfficientNet-B4 architecture on multiple multispectral datasets. Then we show that, since the VQ-VAE 2 based classifier is trained only on pristine images, it is able to detect images belonging to different domains and generated by architectures that have not been used during training. Last, we compare the two classifiers head-to-head on the same generated datasets, highlighting the superiori generalization capabilities of the VQ-VAE 2-based detector.


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