An ecologically valid examination of event-based and time-based prospective memory using immersive virtual reality: the influence of attention, memory, and executive function p

by   Panagiotis Kourtesis, et al.

Studies on prospective memory (PM) predominantly assess either event- or time-based PM by implementing non-ecological laboratory-based tasks. The results deriving from these paradigms have provided findings that are discrepant with ecologically valid research paradigms that converge on the complexity and cognitive demands of everyday tasks. The Virtual Reality Everyday Assessment Lab (VR-EAL), an immersive virtual reality (VR) neuropsychological battery with enhanced ecological validity, was implemented to assess everyday event- and time-based PM, as well as the influence of other cognitive functions on everyday PM functioning. The results demonstrated the importance of delayed recognition, planning, and visuospatial attention on everyday PM. Delayed recognition and planning ability were found to be central in event- and time-based PM respectively. In order of importance, delayed recognition, visuospatial attention speed, and planning ability were found to be involved in event-based PM functioning. Comparably, planning, visuospatial attention accuracy, delayed recognition, and multitasking/task-shifting ability were found to be involved in time-based PM functioning. These findings further suggest the importance of ecological validity in the study of PM, which may be achieved using immersive VR paradigms.


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