Automatic registration with continuous pose updates for marker-less surgical navigation in spine surgery

by   Florentin Liebmann, et al.

Established surgical navigation systems for pedicle screw placement have been proven to be accurate, but still reveal limitations in registration or surgical guidance. Registration of preoperative data to the intraoperative anatomy remains a time-consuming, error-prone task that includes exposure to harmful radiation. Surgical guidance through conventional displays has well-known drawbacks, as information cannot be presented in-situ and from the surgeon's perspective. Consequently, radiation-free and more automatic registration methods with subsequent surgeon-centric navigation feedback are desirable. In this work, we present an approach that automatically solves the registration problem for lumbar spinal fusion surgery in a radiation-free manner. A deep neural network was trained to segment the lumbar spine and simultaneously predict its orientation, yielding an initial pose for preoperative models, which then is refined for each vertebra individually and updated in real-time with GPU acceleration while handling surgeon occlusions. An intuitive surgical guidance is provided thanks to the integration into an augmented reality based navigation system. The registration method was verified on a public dataset with a mean of 96% successful registrations, a target registration error of 2.73 mm, a screw trajectory error of 1.79 and a screw entry point error of 2.43 mm. Additionally, the whole pipeline was validated in an ex-vivo surgery, yielding a 100% screw accuracy and a registration accuracy of 1.20 mm. Our results meet clinical demands and emphasize the potential of RGB-D data for fully automatic registration approaches in combination with augmented reality guidance.


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