AUTOSHAPE: An Autoencoder-Shapelet Approach for Time Series Clustering

by   Guozhong Li, et al.
Hong Kong Baptist University
Nanyang Technological University
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Time series shapelets are discriminative subsequences that have been recently found effective for time series clustering (TSC). The shapelets are convenient for interpreting the clusters. Thus, the main challenge for TSC is to discover high-quality variable-length shapelets to discriminate different clusters. In this paper, we propose a novel autoencoder-shapelet approach (AUTOSHAPE), which is the first study to take the advantage of both autoencoder and shapelet for determining shapelets in an unsupervised manner. An autoencoder is specially designed to learn high-quality shapelets. More specifically, for guiding the latent representation learning, we employ the latest self-supervised loss to learn the unified embeddings for variable-length shapelet candidates (time series subsequences) of different variables, and propose the diversity loss to select the discriminating embeddings in the unified space. We introduce the reconstruction loss to recover shapelets in the original time series space for clustering. Finally, we adopt Davies Bouldin index (DBI) to inform AUTOSHAPE of the clustering performance during learning. We present extensive experiments on AUTOSHAPE. To evaluate the clustering performance on univariate time series (UTS), we compare AUTOSHAPE with 15 representative methods using UCR archive datasets. To study the performance of multivariate time series (MTS), we evaluate AUTOSHAPE on 30 UEA archive datasets with 5 competitive methods. The results validate that AUTOSHAPE is the best among all the methods compared. We interpret clusters with shapelets, and can obtain interesting intuitions about clusters in three UTS case studies and one MTS case study, respectively.


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