Bayesian Reconstruction of Magnetic Resonance Images using Gaussian Processes

by   Yihong Xu, et al.

A central goal of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to reduce the time required to produce high-quality images. Efforts have included hardware and software innovations such as parallel imaging, compressed sensing, and deep learning-based reconstruction. Here, we propose and demonstrate a Bayesian method to build statistical libraries of magnetic resonance (MR) images in k-space and use these libraries to identify optimal subsampling paths and reconstruction processes. Specifically, we compute a multivariate normal distribution based upon Gaussian processes using a publicly available library of T1-weighted images of healthy brains. We combine this library with physics-informed envelope functions to only retain meaningful correlations in k-space. This covariance function is then used to select a series of ring-shaped subsampling paths using Bayesian optimization such that they optimally explore space while remaining practically realizable in commercial MRI systems. Combining optimized subsampling paths found for a range of images, we compute a generalized sampling path that, when used for novel images, produces superlative structural similarity and error in comparison to previously reported reconstruction processes (i.e. 96.3 and <0.003 normalized mean squared error from sampling only 12.5 k-space data). Finally, we use this reconstruction process on pathological data without retraining to show that reconstructed images are clinically useful for stroke identification.


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