Can pruning improve certified robustness of neural networks?
With the rapid development of deep learning, the sizes of neural networks become larger and larger so that the training and inference often overwhelm the hardware resources. Given the fact that neural networks are often over-parameterized, one effective way to reduce such computational overhead is neural network pruning, by removing redundant parameters from trained neural networks. It has been recently observed that pruning can not only reduce computational overhead but also can improve empirical robustness of deep neural networks (NNs), potentially owing to removing spurious correlations while preserving the predictive accuracies. This paper for the first time demonstrates that pruning can generally improve certified robustness for ReLU-based NNs under the complete verification setting. Using the popular Branch-and-Bound (BaB) framework, we find that pruning can enhance the estimated bound tightness of certified robustness verification, by alleviating linear relaxation and sub-domain split problems. We empirically verify our findings with off-the-shelf pruning methods and further present a new stability-based pruning method tailored for reducing neuron instability, that outperforms existing pruning methods in enhancing certified robustness. Our experiments show that by appropriately pruning an NN, its certified accuracy can be boosted up to 8.2 adversarial training on the CIFAR10 dataset. We additionally observe the existence of certified lottery tickets that can match both standard and certified robust accuracies of the original dense models across different datasets. Our findings offer a new angle to study the intriguing interaction between sparsity and robustness, i.e. interpreting the interaction of sparsity and certified robustness via neuron stability. Codes are available at: https://github.com/VITA-Group/CertifiedPruning.READ FULL TEXT