Distributed Adaptive Sampling for Kernel Matrix Approximation

by   Daniele Calandriello, et al.

Most kernel-based methods, such as kernel or Gaussian process regression, kernel PCA, ICA, or k-means clustering, do not scale to large datasets, because constructing and storing the kernel matrix K_n requires at least O(n^2) time and space for n samples. Recent works show that sampling points with replacement according to their ridge leverage scores (RLS) generates small dictionaries of relevant points with strong spectral approximation guarantees for K_n. The drawback of RLS-based methods is that computing exact RLS requires constructing and storing the whole kernel matrix. In this paper, we introduce SQUEAK, a new algorithm for kernel approximation based on RLS sampling that sequentially processes the dataset, storing a dictionary which creates accurate kernel matrix approximations with a number of points that only depends on the effective dimension d_eff(γ) of the dataset. Moreover since all the RLS estimations are efficiently performed using only the small dictionary, SQUEAK is the first RLS sampling algorithm that never constructs the whole matrix K_n, runs in linear time O(nd_eff(γ)^3) w.r.t. n, and requires only a single pass over the dataset. We also propose a parallel and distributed version of SQUEAK that linearly scales across multiple machines, achieving similar accuracy in as little as O((n)d_eff(γ)^3) time.


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