Dynamic Graph Attention for Anomaly Detection in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

by   Mengjie Zhao, et al.

In the era of digital transformation, systems monitored by the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoTs) generate large amounts of Multivariate Time Series (MTS) data through heterogeneous sensor networks. While this data facilitates condition monitoring and anomaly detection, the increasing complexity and interdependencies within the sensor network pose significant challenges for anomaly detection. Despite progress in this field, much of the focus has been on point anomalies and contextual anomalies, with lesser attention paid to collective anomalies. A less addressed but common variant of collective anomalies is when the abnormal collective behavior is caused by shifts in interrelationships within the system. This can be due to abnormal environmental conditions like overheating, improper operational settings resulting from cyber-physical attacks, or system-level faults. To address these challenges, this paper proposes DyGATAD (Dynamic Graph Attention for Anomaly Detection), a graph-based anomaly detection framework that leverages the attention mechanism to construct a continuous graph representation of multivariate time series by inferring dynamic edges between time series. DyGATAD incorporates an operating condition-aware reconstruction combined with a topology-based anomaly score, thereby enhancing the detection ability of relationship shifts. We evaluate the performance of DyGATAD using both a synthetic dataset with controlled varying fault severity levels and an industrial-scale multiphase flow facility benchmark featuring various fault types with different detection difficulties. Our proposed approach demonstrated superior performance in collective anomaly detection for sensor networks, showing particular strength in early-stage fault detection, even in the case of faults with minimal severity.


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