Eye-tracked Virtual Reality: A Comprehensive Survey on Methods and Privacy Challenges

by   Efe Bozkir, et al.

Latest developments in computer hardware, sensor technologies, and artificial intelligence can make virtual reality (VR) and virtual spaces an important part of human everyday life. Eye tracking offers not only a hands-free way of interaction but also the possibility of a deeper understanding of human visual attention and cognitive processes in VR. Despite these possibilities, eye-tracking data also reveal privacy-sensitive attributes of users when it is combined with the information about the presented stimulus. To address these possibilities and potential privacy issues, in this survey, we first cover major works in eye tracking, VR, and privacy areas between the years 2012 and 2022. While eye tracking in the VR part covers the complete pipeline of eye-tracking methodology from pupil detection and gaze estimation to offline use and analyses, as for privacy and security, we focus on eye-based authentication as well as computational methods to preserve the privacy of individuals and their eye-tracking data in VR. Later, taking all into consideration, we draw three main directions for the research community by mainly focusing on privacy challenges. In summary, this survey provides an extensive literature review of the utmost possibilities with eye tracking in VR and the privacy implications of those possibilities.


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