Face Recognition using Optimal Representation Ensemble

by   Hanxi Li, et al.

Recently, the face recognizers based on linear representations have been shown to deliver state-of-the-art performance. In real-world applications, however, face images usually suffer from expressions, disguises and random occlusions. The problematic facial parts undermine the validity of the linear-subspace assumption and thus the recognition performance deteriorates significantly. In this work, we address the problem in a learning-inference-mixed fashion. By observing that the linear-subspace assumption is more reliable on certain face patches rather than on the holistic face, some Bayesian Patch Representations (BPRs) are randomly generated and interpreted according to the Bayes' theory. We then train an ensemble model over the patch-representations by minimizing the empirical risk w.r.t the "leave-one-out margins". The obtained model is termed Optimal Representation Ensemble (ORE), since it guarantees the optimality from the perspective of Empirical Risk Minimization. To handle the unknown patterns in test faces, a robust version of BPR is proposed by taking the non-face category into consideration. Equipped with the Robust-BPRs, the inference ability of ORE is increased dramatically and several record-breaking accuracies (99.9 and 99.5 are achieved. It also overwhelms other modular heuristics on the faces with random occlusions, extreme expressions and disguises. Furthermore, to accommodate immense BPRs sets, a boosting-like algorithm is also derived. The boosted model, a.k.a Boosted-ORE, obtains similar performance to its prototype. Besides the empirical superiorities, two desirable features of the proposed methods, namely, the training-determined model-selection and the data-weight-free boosting procedure, are also theoretically verified.


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