Fast emulation of cosmological density fields based on dimensionality reduction and supervised machine-learning

by   Miguel Conceição, et al.

N-body simulations are the most powerful method to study the non-linear evolution of large-scale structure. However, they require large amounts of computational resources, making unfeasible their direct adoption in scenarios that require broad explorations of parameter spaces. In this work, we show that it is possible to perform fast dark matter density field emulations with competitive accuracy using simple machine-learning approaches. We build an emulator based on dimensionality reduction and machine learning regression combining simple Principal Component Analysis and supervised learning methods. For the estimations with a single free parameter, we train on the dark matter density parameter, Ω_m, while for emulations with two free parameters, we train on a range of Ω_m and redshift. The method first adopts a projection of a grid of simulations on a given basis; then, a machine learning regression is trained on this projected grid. Finally, new density cubes for different cosmological parameters can be estimated without relying directly on new N-body simulations by predicting and de-projecting the basis coefficients. We show that the proposed emulator can generate density cubes at non-linear cosmological scales with density distributions within a few percent compared to the corresponding N-body simulations. The method enables gains of three orders of magnitude in CPU run times compared to performing a full N-body simulation while reproducing the power spectrum and bispectrum within ∼ 1% and ∼ 3%, respectively, for the single free parameter emulation and ∼ 5% and ∼ 15% for two free parameters. This can significantly accelerate the generation of density cubes for a wide variety of cosmological models, opening the doors to previously unfeasible applications, such as parameter and model inferences at full survey scales as the ESA/NASA Euclid mission.


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