Federated Domain Generalization: A Survey

by   Ying Li, et al.

Machine learning typically relies on the assumption that training and testing distributions are identical and that data is centrally stored for training and testing. However, in real-world scenarios, distributions may differ significantly and data is often distributed across different devices, organizations, or edge nodes. Consequently, it is imperative to develop models that can effectively generalize to unseen distributions where data is distributed across different domains. In response to this challenge, there has been a surge of interest in federated domain generalization (FDG) in recent years. FDG combines the strengths of federated learning (FL) and domain generalization (DG) techniques to enable multiple source domains to collaboratively learn a model capable of directly generalizing to unseen domains while preserving data privacy. However, generalizing the federated model under domain shifts is a technically challenging problem that has received scant attention in the research area so far. This paper presents the first survey of recent advances in this area. Initially, we discuss the development process from traditional machine learning to domain adaptation and domain generalization, leading to FDG as well as provide the corresponding formal definition. Then, we categorize recent methodologies into four classes: federated domain alignment, data manipulation, learning strategies, and aggregation optimization, and present suitable algorithms in detail for each category. Next, we introduce commonly used datasets, applications, evaluations, and benchmarks. Finally, we conclude this survey by providing some potential research topics for the future.


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