Human-like generalization in a machine through predicate learning

by   Leonidas A. A. Doumas, et al.

Humans readily generalize, applying prior knowledge to novel situations and stimuli. Advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence have begun to approximate and even surpases human performance, but machine systems reliably struggle to generalize information to untrained situations. We describe a neural network model that is trained to play one video game (Breakout) and demonstrates one-shot generalization to a new game (Pong). The model generalizes by learning representations that are functionally and formally symbolic from training data, without feedback, and without requiring that structured representations be specified a priori. The model uses unsupervised comparison to discover which characteristics of the input are invariant, and to learn relational predicates; it then applies these predicates to arguments in a symbolic fashion, using oscillatory regularities in network firing to dynamically bind predicates to arguments. We argue that models of human cognition must account for far- reaching and flexible generalization, and that in order to do so, models must be able to discover symbolic representations from unstructured data, a process we call predicate learning. Only then can models begin to adequately explain where human-like representations come from, why human cognition is the way it is, and why it continues to differ from machine intelligence in crucial ways.


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