Improving trajectory calculations using deep learning inspired single image superresolution

by   Rüdiger Brecht, et al.

Lagrangian trajectory or particle dispersion models as well as semi-Lagrangian advection schemes require meteorological data such as wind, temperature and geopotential at the exact spatio-temporal locations of the particles that move independently from a regular grid. Traditionally, this high-resolution data has been obtained by interpolating the meteorological parameters from the gridded data of a meteorological model or reanalysis, e.g. using linear interpolation in space and time. However, interpolation errors are a large source of error for these models. Reducing them requires meteorological input fields with high space and time resolution, which may not always be available and can cause severe data storage and transfer problems. Here, we interpret this problem as a single image superresolution task. We interpret meteorological fields available at their native resolution as low-resolution images and train deep neural networks to up-scale them to higher resolution, thereby providing more accurate data for Lagrangian models. We train various versions of the state-of-the-art Enhanced Deep Residual Networks for Superresolution on low-resolution ERA5 reanalysis data with the goal to up-scale these data to arbitrary spatial resolution. We show that the resulting up-scaled wind fields have root-mean-squared errors half the size of the winds obtained with linear spatial interpolation at acceptable computational inference costs. In a test setup using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART and reduced-resolution wind fields, we demonstrate that absolute horizontal transport deviations of calculated trajectories from "ground-truth" trajectories calculated with undegraded 0.5 winds are reduced by at least 49.5 interpolation of the wind data when training on 2 to 1 (4 to 2) resolution data.


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