Incorporating Symbolic Domain Knowledge into Graph Neural Networks

by   Tirtharaj Dash, et al.

Our interest is in scientific problems with the following characteristics: (1) Data are naturally represented as graphs; (2) The amount of data available is typically small; and (3) There is significant domain-knowledge, usually expressed in some symbolic form. These kinds of problems have been addressed effectively in the past by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), by virtue of 2 important characteristics: (a) The use of a representation language that easily captures the relation encoded in graph-structured data, and (b) The inclusion of prior information encoded as domain-specific relations, that can alleviate problems of data scarcity, and construct new relations. Recent advances have seen the emergence of deep neural networks specifically developed for graph-structured data (Graph-based Neural Networks, or GNNs). While GNNs have been shown to be able to handle graph-structured data, less has been done to investigate the inclusion of domain-knowledge. Here we investigate this aspect of GNNs empirically by employing an operation we term "vertex-enrichment" and denote the corresponding GNNs as "VEGNNs". Using over 70 real-world datasets and substantial amounts of symbolic domain-knowledge, we examine the result of vertex-enrichment across 5 different variants of GNNs. Our results provide support for the following: (a) Inclusion of domain-knowledge by vertex-enrichment can significantly improve the performance of a GNN. That is, the performance VEGNNs is significantly better than GNNs across all GNN variants; (b) The inclusion of domain-specific relations constructed using ILP improves the performance of VEGNNs, across all GNN variants. Taken together, the results provide evidence that it is possible to incorporate symbolic domain knowledge into a GNN, and that ILP can play an important role in providing high-level relationships that are not easily discovered by a GNN.


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