LEO: Learning Efficient Orderings for Multiobjective Binary Decision Diagrams

by   Rahul Patel, et al.

Approaches based on Binary decision diagrams (BDDs) have recently achieved state-of-the-art results for multiobjective integer programming problems. The variable ordering used in constructing BDDs can have a significant impact on their size and on the quality of bounds derived from relaxed or restricted BDDs for single-objective optimization problems. We first showcase a similar impact of variable ordering on the Pareto frontier (PF) enumeration time for the multiobjective knapsack problem, suggesting the need for deriving variable ordering methods that improve the scalability of the multiobjective BDD approach. To that end, we derive a novel parameter configuration space based on variable scoring functions which are linear in a small set of interpretable and easy-to-compute variable features. We show how the configuration space can be efficiently explored using black-box optimization, circumventing the curse of dimensionality (in the number of variables and objectives), and finding good orderings that reduce the PF enumeration time. However, black-box optimization approaches incur a computational overhead that outweighs the reduction in time due to good variable ordering. To alleviate this issue, we propose LEO, a supervised learning approach for finding efficient variable orderings that reduce the enumeration time. Experiments on benchmark sets from the knapsack problem with 3-7 objectives and up to 80 variables show that LEO is  30-300 and  10-200 algorithm configuration. Our code and instances are available at https://github.com/khalil-research/leo.


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