Localization in Ensemble Kalman inversion

by   Xin T. Tong, et al.

Ensemble Kalman inversion (EKI) is a technique for the numerical solution of inverse problems. A great advantage of the EKI's ensemble approach is that derivatives are not required in its implementation. But theoretically speaking, EKI's ensemble size needs to surpass the dimension of the problem. This is because of EKI's "subspace property", i.e., that the EKI solution is a linear combination of the initial ensemble it starts off with. We show that the ensemble can break out of this initial subspace when "localization" is applied. In essence, localization enforces an assumed correlation structure onto the problem, and is heavily used in ensemble Kalman filtering and data assimilation. We describe and analyze how to apply localization to the EKI, and how localization helps the EKI ensemble break out of the initial subspace. Specifically, we show that the localized EKI (LEKI) ensemble will collapse to a single point (as intended) and that the LEKI ensemble mean will converge to the global optimum at a sublinear rate. Under strict assumptions on the localization procedure and observation process, we further show that the data misfit decays uniformly. We illustrate our ideas and theoretical developments with numerical examples with simplified toy problems, a Lorenz model, and an inversion of electromagnetic data, where some of our mathematical assumptions may only be approximately valid.


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