# Minimal residual multistep methods for large stiff non-autonomous linear problems

The purpose of this work is to introduce a new idea of how to avoid the factorization of large matrices during the solution of stiff systems of ODEs. Starting from the general form of an explicit linear multistep method we suggest to adaptively choose its coefficients on each integration step in order to minimize the norm of the residual of an implicit BDF formula. Thereby we reduce the number of unknowns on each step from n to O(1), where n is the dimension of the ODE system. We call this type of methods Minimal Residual Multistep (MRMS) methods. In the case of linear non-autonomous problem, besides the evaluations of the right-hand side of ODE, the resulting numerical scheme additionally requires one solution of a linear least-squares problem with a thin matrix per step. We show that the order of the method and its zero-stability properties coincide with those of the used underlying BDF formula. For the simplest analog of the implicit Euler method the properties of linear stability are investigated. Though the classical absolute stability analysis is not fully relevant to the MRMS methods, it is shown that this one-step method is applicable in stiff case. In the numerical experiment section we consider the fixed-step integration of a two-dimensional non-autonomous heat equation using the MRMS methods and their classical BDF counterparts. The starting values are taken from a preset slowly-varying exact solution. The comparison showed that both methods give similar numerical solutions, but in the case of large systems the MRMS methods are faster, and their advantage considerably increases with the growth of dimension. Python code with the experimantal code can be downloaded from the GitHub repository https://github.com/bfaleichik/mrms.

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