Multi-budgeted directed cuts

by   Stefan Kratsch, et al.

We study multi-budgeted variants of the classic minimum cut problem and graph separation problems that turned out to be important in parameterized complexity: Skew Multicut and Directed Feedback Arc Set. In our generalization, we assign colors 1,2,...,ℓ to some edges and give separate budgets k_1,k_2,...,k_ℓ. Let E_i be the set of edges of color i. The solution C for the multi-budgeted variant of a graph separation problem not only needs to satisfy the usual separation requirements, but also needs to satisfy that |C∩ E_i|≤ k_i for every i∈{1,...,ℓ}. Contrary to the classic minimum cut problem, the multi-budgeted variant turns out to be NP-hard even for ℓ = 2. We propose FPT algorithms parameterized by k=k_1+...+k_ℓ for all three problems. To this end, we develop a branching procedure for the multi-budgeted minimum cut problem that measures the progress of the algorithm not by reducing k as usual, by but elevating the capacity of some edges and thus increasing the size of maximum source-to-sink flow. Using the fact that a similar strategy is used to enumerate all important separators of a given size, we merge this process with the flow-guided branching and show an FPT bound on the number of (appropriately defined) important multi-budgeted separators. This allows us to extend our algorithm to the Skew Multicut and Directed Feedback Arc Set problems. Furthermore, we show connections of the multi-budgeted variants with weighted variants of the directed cut problems and the Chain ℓ-SAT problem, whose parameterized complexity remains an open problem. We show that these problems admit a bounded-in-parameter number of "maximally pushed" solutions (in a similar spirit as important separators are maximally pushed), giving somewhat weak evidence towards their tractability.


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