Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels using Mixed Dependency Graphs

by   Baoyuan Wu, et al.

This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels. The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called MG-CO (mixed graph with co-occurrence). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL, respectively. Two important applications, including image annotation and tag based image retrieval, can be jointly handled using our proposed methods. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that our methods give significant improvements in performance and robustness to missing labels over the state-of-the-art methods.


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