Normalization in Training Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for 2D Bio-medical Semantic Segmentation

by   Xiao-Yun Zhou, et al.

2D bio-medical semantic segmentation is important for surgical robotic vision. Segmentation methods based on Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) out-perform conventional methods in terms of both the accuracy and automation. One common issue in training DCNN is the internal covariate shift, where the convolutional kernels are trained to fit the distribution change of input feature, hence both the training speed and performance are decreased. Batch Normalization (BN) is the first proposed method for addressing internal covariate shift and is widely used. Later Instance Normalization (IN) and Layer Normalization (LN) were proposed and are used much less than BN. Group Normalization (GN) was proposed very recently and has not been applied into 2D bio-medical semantic segmentation yet. Most DCNN-based bio-medical semantic segmentation adopts BN as the normalization method by default, without reviewing its performance. In this paper, four normalization methods - BN, IN, LN and GN are compared and reviewed in details specifically for 2D bio-medical semantic segmentation. The result proved that GN out-performed the other three normalization methods - BN, IN and LN in 2D bio-medical semantic segmentation regarding both the accuracy and robustness. Unet is adopted as the basic DCNN structure. 37 RVs from both asymptomatic and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) subjects and 20 aortas from asymptomatic subjects were used for the validation. The code and trained models will be available online.


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