NSSIA: A New Self-Sovereign Identity Scheme with Accountability

by   Qiuyun Lyu, et al.

Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) is a new distributed method for identity management, commonly used to address the problem that users are lack of control over their identities. However, the excessive pursuit of self-sovereignty in the most existing SSI schemes hinders sanctions against attackers. To deal with the malicious behavior, a few SSI schemes introduce accountability mechanisms, but they sacrifice users' privacy. What's more, the digital identities (static strings or updatable chains) in the existing SSI schemes are as inputs to a third-party executable program (mobile app, smart contract, etc.) to achieve identity reading, storing and proving, users' self-sovereignty are weakened. To solve the above problems, we present a new self-sovereign identity scheme to strike a balance between privacy and accountability and get rid of the dependence on the third-party program. In our scheme, one and only individual-specific executable code is generated as a digital avatar-i for each human to interact with others in cyberspace without a third-party program, in which the embedding of biometrics enhances uniqueness and user control over their identity. In addition, a joint accountability mechanism, which is based on the shamir (t, n) threshold algorithm and a consortium blockchain, is designed to restrict the power of each regulatory authority and protect users' privacy. Finally, we analyze the security, SSI properties and conduct detailed experiments in term of the cost of computation, storage and blockchain gas. The analysis results indicate that our scheme resists the known attacks and fulfills all the six SSI properties. Compared with the state-of-the-art schemes, the extensive experiment results show that the cost is larger in server storage, blockchain storage and blockchain gas, but is still low enough for practical situations.


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