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On Approximating the Dynamic Response of Synchronous Generators via Operator Learning: A Step Towards Building Deep Operator-based Power Grid Simulators

by   Christian Moya, et al.

This paper designs an Operator Learning framework to approximate the dynamic response of synchronous generators. One can use such a framework to (i) design a neural-based generator model that can interact with a numerical simulator of the rest of the power grid or (ii) shadow the generator's transient response. To this end, we design a data-driven Deep Operator Network (DeepONet) that approximates the generators' infinite-dimensional solution operator. Then, we develop a DeepONet-based numerical scheme to simulate a given generator's dynamic response over a short/medium-term horizon. The proposed numerical scheme recursively employs the trained DeepONet to simulate the response for a given multi-dimensional input, which describes the interaction between the generator and the rest of the system. Furthermore, we develop a residual DeepONet numerical scheme that incorporates information from mathematical models of synchronous generators. We accompany this residual DeepONet scheme with an estimate for the prediction's cumulative error. We also design a data aggregation (DAgger) strategy that allows (i) employing supervised learning to train the proposed DeepONets and (ii) fine-tuning the DeepONet using aggregated training data that the DeepONet is likely to encounter during interactive simulations with other grid components. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the proposed DeepONet frameworks can effectively approximate the transient model of a synchronous generator.


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