Opacity of Discrete Event Systems with Active Intruder

by   Alireza Partovi, et al.

Opacity is a security property formalizing the information leakage of a system to an external observer, namely intruder. The conventional opacity that has been studied in the Discrete Event System (DES) literature usually assumes passive intruders, who only observe the behavior of the system. However, in many cybersecurity concerns, such as web service, active intruders, who are capable of influencing the system's behavior beyond passive observations, need to be considered and defended against. We are therefore motivated to extend the opacity notions to handle active intruders. For this, we model the system as a non-deterministic finite-state transducer. It is assumed that the intruder has a full knowledge of the system structure and is capable of interacting with the system by injecting different inputs and observing its responses. In this setup, we first introduce reactive current-state opacity (RCSO) notion characterizing a property that the system does not leak its secret state regardless of how the intruder manipulates the system behavior. We furthermore extend this notion to language-based and initial-state reactive opacity notions, and study the relationship among them. It turns out that all the proposed reactive opacity notions are equivalent to RCSO. We therefore focus on RCSO and study its verification problem. It is shown that the RCSO can be verified by constructing an observer automaton.


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