Patch-aware Batch Normalization for Improving Cross-domain Robustness

by   Lei Qi, et al.

Despite the significant success of deep learning in computer vision tasks, cross-domain tasks still present a challenge in which the model's performance will degrade when the training set and the test set follow different distributions. Most existing methods employ adversarial learning or instance normalization for achieving data augmentation to solve this task. In contrast, considering that the batch normalization (BN) layer may not be robust for unseen domains and there exist the differences between local patches of an image, we propose a novel method called patch-aware batch normalization (PBN). To be specific, we first split feature maps of a batch into non-overlapping patches along the spatial dimension, and then independently normalize each patch to jointly optimize the shared BN parameter at each iteration. By exploiting the differences between local patches of an image, our proposed PBN can effectively enhance the robustness of the model's parameters. Besides, considering the statistics from each patch may be inaccurate due to their smaller size compared to the global feature maps, we incorporate the globally accumulated statistics with the statistics from each batch to obtain the final statistics for normalizing each patch. Since the proposed PBN can replace the typical BN, it can be integrated into most existing state-of-the-art methods. Extensive experiments and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of our PBN in multiple computer vision tasks, including classification, object detection, instance retrieval, and semantic segmentation.


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