Physical Accuracy of Deep Neural Networks for 2D and 3D Multi-Mineral Segmentation of Rock micro-CT Images

by   Ying Da Wang, et al.

Segmentation of 3D micro-Computed Tomographic uCT) images of rock samples is essential for further Digital Rock Physics (DRP) analysis, however, conventional methods such as thresholding, watershed segmentation, and converging active contours are susceptible to user-bias. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have produced accurate pixelwise semantic segmentation results with natural images and μCT rock images, however, physical accuracy is not well documented. The performance of 4 CNN architectures is tested for 2D and 3D cases in 10 configurations. Manually segmented uCT images of Mt. Simon Sandstone are treated as ground truth and used as training and validation data, with a high voxelwise accuracy (over 99 used to validate physical accuracy. The topology of each segmented phase is calculated, and the absolute permeability and multiphase flow is modelled with direct simulation in single and mixed wetting cases. These physical measures of connectivity, and flow characteristics show high variance and uncertainty, with models that achieve 95%+ in voxelwise accuracy possessing permeabilities and connectivities orders of magnitude off. A new network architecture is also introduced as a hybrid fusion of U-net and ResNet, combining short and long skip connections in a Network-in-Network configuration. The 3D implementation outperforms all other tested models in voxelwise and physical accuracy measures. The network architecture and the volume fraction in the dataset (and associated weighting), are factors that not only influence the accuracy trade-off in the voxelwise case, but is especially important in training a physically accurate model for segmentation.


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