Poisson Vector Graphics (PVG) and Its Closed-Form Solver

by   Fei Hou, et al.

This paper presents Poisson vector graphics, an extension of the popular first-order diffusion curves, for generating smooth-shaded images. Armed with two new types of primitives, namely Poisson curves and Poisson regions, PVG can easily produce photorealistic effects such as specular highlights, core shadows, translucency and halos. Within the PVG framework, users specify color as the Dirichlet boundary condition of diffusion curves and control tone by offsetting the Laplacian, where both controls are simply done by mouse click and slider dragging. The separation of color and tone not only follows the basic drawing principle that is widely adopted by professional artists, but also brings three unique features to PVG, i.e., local hue change, ease of extrema control, and permit of intersection among geometric primitives, making PVG an ideal authoring tool. To render PVG, we develop an efficient method to solve 2D Poisson's equations with piecewise constant Laplacians. In contrast to the conventional finite element method that computes numerical solutions only, our method expresses the solution using harmonic B-spline, whose basis functions can be constructed locally and the control coefficients are obtained by solving a small sparse linear system. Our closed-form solver is numerically stable and it supports random access evaluation, zooming-in of arbitrary resolution and anti-aliasing. Although the harmonic B-spline based solutions are approximate, computational results show that the relative mean error is less than 0.3 distinguished by naked eyes.


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