Quantitative Risk Indices for Autonomous Vehicle Training Systems

by   Eduardo Candela, et al.

The development of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) presents an opportunity to save and improve lives. However, achieving SAE Level 5 (full) autonomy will require overcoming many technical challenges. There is a gap in the literature regarding the measurement of safety for self-driving systems. Measuring safety and risk is paramount for the generation of useful simulation scenarios for training and validation of autonomous systems. The limitation of current approaches is the dependence on near-crash data. Although near-miss data can substantially increase scarce available accident data, the definition of a near-miss or near-crash is arbitrary. A promising alternative is the introduction of the Responsibility-Sensitive Safety (RSS) model by Shalev-Shwartz et al., which defines safe lateral and longitudinal distances that can guarantee impossibility of collision under reasonable assumptions for vehicle dynamics. We present a framework that extends the RSS model for cases when reasonable assumptions or safe distances are violated. The proposed framework introduces risk indices that quantify the likelihood of a collision by using vehicle dynamics and driver's risk aversion. The present study concludes with proposed experiments for tuning the parameters of the formulated risk indices.


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