Scheduling Algorithms for Federated Learning with Minimal Energy Consumption

by   Laércio Lima Pilla, et al.

Federated Learning (FL) has opened the opportunity for collaboratively training machine learning models on heterogeneous mobile or Edge devices while keeping local data private.With an increase in its adoption, a growing concern is related to its economic and environmental cost (as is also the case for other machine learning techniques).Unfortunately, little work has been done to optimize its energy consumption or emissions of carbon dioxide or equivalents, as energy minimization is usually left as a secondary objective.In this paper, we investigate the problem of minimizing the energy consumption of FL training on heterogeneous devices by controlling the workload distribution.We model this as the Minimal Cost FL Schedule problem, a total cost minimization problem with identical, independent, and atomic tasks that have to be assigned to heterogeneous resources with arbitrary cost functions.We propose a pseudo-polynomial optimal solution to the problem based on the previously unexplored Multiple-Choice Minimum-Cost Maximal Knapsack Packing Problem.We also provide four algorithms for scenarios where cost functions are monotonically increasing and follow the same behavior.These solutions are likewise applicable on the minimization of other kinds of costs, and in other one-dimensional data partition problems.


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