The Role of Large Language Models in the Recognition of Territorial Sovereignty: An Analysis of the Construction of Legitimacy

We examine the potential impact of Large Language Models (LLM) on the recognition of territorial sovereignty and its legitimization. We argue that while technology tools, such as Google Maps and Large Language Models (LLM) like OpenAI's ChatGPT, are often perceived as impartial and objective, this perception is flawed, as AI algorithms reflect the biases of their designers or the data they are built on. We also stress the importance of evaluating the actions and decisions of AI and multinational companies that offer them, which play a crucial role in aspects such as legitimizing and establishing ideas in the collective imagination. Our paper highlights the case of three controversial territories: Crimea, West Bank and Transnitria, by comparing the responses of ChatGPT against Wikipedia information and United Nations resolutions. We contend that the emergence of AI-based tools like LLMs is leading to a new scenario in which emerging technology consolidates power and influences our understanding of reality. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor and analyze the role of AI in the construction of legitimacy and the recognition of territorial sovereignty.


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