Weighted Euclidean balancing for a matrix exposure in estimating causal effect

by   Juan Chen, et al.

In many scientific fields such as biology, psychology and sociology, there is an increasing interest in estimating the causal effect of a matrix exposure on an outcome. Covariate balancing is crucial in causal inference and both exact balancing and approximate balancing methods have been proposed in the past decades. However, due to the large number of constraints, it is difficult to achieve exact balance or to select the threshold parameters for approximate balancing methods when the treatment is a matrix. To meet these challenges, we propose the weighted Euclidean balancing method, which approximately balance covariates from an overall perspective. This method is also applicable to high-dimensional covariates scenario. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are proposed to estimate the causal effect of matrix treatment and theoretical properties of the two estimations are provided. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods in various cases. Finally, the method is applied to investigating the causal relationship between children's participation in various training courses and their IQ. The results show that the duration of attending hands-on practice courses for children at 6-9 years old has a siginificantly positive impact on children's IQ.


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