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Weisfeiler and Leman go Machine Learning: The Story so far

by   Christopher Morris, et al.

In recent years, algorithms and neural architectures based on the Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm, a well-known heuristic for the graph isomorphism problem, emerged as a powerful tool for machine learning with graphs and relational data. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of the algorithm's use in a machine learning setting, focusing on the supervised regime. We discuss the theoretical background, show how to use it for supervised graph- and node representation learning, discuss recent extensions, and outline the algorithm's connection to (permutation-)equivariant neural architectures. Moreover, we give an overview of current applications and future directions to stimulate further research.


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