A Comparison Study on Nonlinear Dimension Reduction Methods with Kernel Variations: Visualization, Optimization and Classification

by   Katherine C. Kempfert, et al.

Because of high dimensionality, correlation among covariates, and noise contained in data, dimension reduction (DR) techniques are often employed to the application of machine learning algorithms. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and their kernel variants (KPCA, KLDA) are among the most popular DR methods. Recently, Supervised Kernel Principal Component Analysis (SKPCA) has been shown as another successful alternative. In this paper, brief reviews of these popular techniques are presented first. We then conduct a comparative performance study based on three simulated datasets, after which the performance of the techniques are evaluated through application to a pattern recognition problem in face image analysis. The gender classification problem is considered on MORPH-II and FG-NET, two popular longitudinal face aging databases. Several feature extraction methods are used, including biologically-inspired features (BIF), local binary patterns (LBP), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and the Active Appearance Model (AAM). After applications of DR methods, a linear support vector machine (SVM) is deployed with gender classification accuracy rates exceeding 95 MORPH-II, competitive with benchmark results. A parallel computational approach is also proposed, attaining faster processing speeds and similar recognition rates on MORPH-II. Our computational approach can be applied to practical gender classification systems and generalized to other face analysis tasks, such as race classification and age prediction.


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