A Driver-Vehicle Model for ADS Scenario-based Testing

by   Rodrigo Queiroz, et al.

Scenario-based testing for automated driving systems (ADS) must be able to simulate traffic scenarios that rely on interactions with other vehicles. Although many languages for high-level scenario modelling have been proposed, they lack the features to precisely and reliably control the required micro-simulation, while also supporting behavior reuse and test reproducibility for a wide range of interactive scenarios. To fill this gap between scenario design and execution, we propose the Simulated Driver-Vehicle Model (SDV) to represent and simulate vehicles as dynamic entities with their behavior being constrained by scenario design and goals set by testers. The model combines driver and vehicle as a single entity. It is based on human-like driving and the mechanical limitations of real vehicles for realistic simulation. The layered architecture of the model leverages behavior trees to express high-level behaviors in terms of lower-level maneuvers, affording multiple driving styles and reuse. Further, optimization-based maneuver planner guides the simulated vehicles towards the desired behavior. Our extensive evaluation shows the model's design effectiveness using NHTSA pre-crash scenarios, its motion realism in comparison to naturalistic urban traffic, and its scalability with traffic density. Finally, we show the applicability of SDV model to test a real ADS and to identify crash scenarios, which are impractical to represent using predefined vehicle trajectories. The SDV model instances can be injected into existing simulation environments via co-simulation.


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