A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Type-Aware Chromosomes for Traveling Salesman Problems with Drone

by   Sasan Mahmoudinazlou, et al.

There are emerging transportation problems known as the Traveling Salesman Problem with Drone (TSPD) and the Flying Sidekick Traveling Salesman Problem (FSTSP) that involve the use of a drone in conjunction with a truck for package delivery. This study represents a hybrid genetic algorithm for solving TSPD and FSTSP by combining local search methods and dynamic programming. Similar algorithms exist in the literature. Our algorithm, however, considers more sophisticated chromosomes and simpler dynamic programming to enable broader exploration by the genetic algorithm and efficient exploitation through dynamic programming and local searches. The key contribution of this paper is the discovery of how decision-making processes should be divided among the layers of genetic algorithm, dynamic programming, and local search. In particular, our genetic algorithm generates the truck and the drone sequences separately and encodes them in a type-aware chromosome, wherein each customer is assigned to either the truck or the drone. We apply local searches to each chromosome, which is decoded by dynamic programming for fitness evaluation. Our dynamic programming algorithm merges the two sequences by determining optimal launch and landing locations for the drone to construct a TSPD solution represented by the chromosome. We propose novel type-aware order crossover operations and effective local search methods. A strategy to escape from local optima is proposed. Our new algorithm is shown to outperform existing algorithms on most benchmark instances in both quality and time. Our algorithms found the new best solutions for 538 TSPD instances out of 920 and 93 FSTSP instances out of 132.


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