A Survey on Automated Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Angiography

by   Yasemin Turkan, et al.

Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) are promising tools for the (early) diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These non-invasive imaging techniques are cost-effective and more accessible than alternative neuroimaging tools. However, interpreting and classifying multi-slice scans produced by OCT devices is time-consuming and challenging even for trained practitioners. There are surveys on machine learning and deep learning approaches concerning the automated analysis of OCT scans for various diseases such as glaucoma. However, the current literature lacks an extensive survey on the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment using OCT or OCTA. This has motivated us to do a comprehensive survey aimed at machine/deep learning scientists or practitioners who require an introduction to the problem. The paper contains 1) an introduction to the medical background of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Impairment and their diagnosis using OCT and OCTA imaging modalities, 2) a review of various technical proposals for the problem and the sub-problems from an automated analysis perspective, 3) a systematic review of the recent deep learning studies and available OCT/OCTA datasets directly aimed at the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Impairment. For the latter, we used Publish or Perish Software to search for the relevant studies from various sources such as Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. We followed the PRISMA approach to screen an initial pool of 3073 references and determined ten relevant studies (N=10, out of 3073) that directly targeted AD diagnosis. We identified the lack of open OCT/OCTA datasets (about Alzheimer's disease) as the main issue that is impeding the progress in the field.


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