AlphaDDA: game artificial intelligence with dynamic difficulty adjustment using AlphaZero

by   Kazuhisa Fujita, et al.

An artificial intelligence (AI) player has obtained superhuman skill for games like Go, Chess, and Othello (Reversi). In other words, the AI player becomes too strong as an opponent of human players. Then, we will not enjoy playing board games with the AI player. In order to entertain human players, the AI player is required to balance its skill with the human player's one automatically. To address this issue, I propose AlphaDDA, an AI player with dynamic difficulty adjustment based on AlphaZero. AlphaDDA consists of a deep neural network (DNN) and Monte Carlo tree search like AlphaZero. AlphaDDA estimates the value of the game state form only the board state using the DNN and changes its skill according to the value. AlphaDDA can adjust AlphaDDA's skill using only the state of a game without prior knowledge about an opponent. In this study, AlphaDDA plays Connect4, 6x6 Othello, which is Othello using a 6x6 size board, and Othello with the other AI agents. The other AI agents are AlphaZero, Monte Carlo tree search, Minimax algorithm, and a random player. This study shows that AlphaDDA achieves to balance its skill with the other AI agents except for a random player. AlphaDDA's DDA ability is derived from the accurate estimation of the value from the state of a game. We will be able to use the approach of AlphaDDA for any games in that the DNN can estimate the value from the state.


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