An Automatic SOAP Classification System Using Weakly Supervision And Transfer Learning

by   Sunjae Kwon, et al.

In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive framework for developing a machine learning-based SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan) classification system without manually SOAP annotated training data or with less manually SOAP annotated training data. The system is composed of the following two parts: 1) Data construction, 2) A neural network-based SOAP classifier, and 3) Transfer learning framework. In data construction, since a manual construction of a large size training dataset is expensive, we propose a rule-based weak labeling method utilizing the structured information of an EHR note. Then, we present a SOAP classifier composed of a pre-trained language model and bi-directional long-short term memory with conditional random field (Bi-LSTM-CRF). Finally, we propose a transfer learning framework that re-uses the trained parameters of the SOAP classifier trained with the weakly labeled dataset for datasets collected from another hospital. The proposed weakly label-based learning model successfully performed SOAP classification (89.99 F1-score) on the notes collected from the target hospital. Otherwise, in the notes collected from other hospitals and departments, the performance dramatically decreased. Meanwhile, we verified that the transfer learning framework is advantageous for inter-hospital adaptation of the model increasing the models' performance in every cases. In particular, the transfer learning approach was more efficient when the manually annotated data size was smaller. We showed that SOAP classification models trained with our weakly labeling algorithm can perform SOAP classification without manually annotated data on the EHR notes from the same hospital. The transfer learning framework helps SOAP classification model's inter-hospital migration with a minimal size of the manually annotated dataset.


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