Appearance-based Gaze Estimation With Deep Learning: A Review and Benchmark

by   Yihua Cheng, et al.

Gaze estimation reveals where a person is looking. It is an important clue for understanding human intention. The recent development of deep learning has revolutionized many computer vision tasks, the appearance-based gaze estimation is no exception. However, it lacks a guideline for designing deep learning algorithms for gaze estimation tasks. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the appearance-based gaze estimation methods with deep learning. We summarize the processing pipeline and discuss these methods from four perspectives: deep feature extraction, deep neural network architecture design, personal calibration as well as device and platform. Since the data pre-processing and post-processing methods are crucial for gaze estimation, we also survey face/eye detection method, data rectification method, 2D/3D gaze conversion method, and gaze origin conversion method. To fairly compare the performance of various gaze estimation approaches, we characterize all the publicly available gaze estimation datasets and collect the code of typical gaze estimation algorithms. We implement these codes and set up a benchmark of converting the results of different methods into the same evaluation metrics. This paper not only serves as a reference to develop deep learning-based gaze estimation methods but also a guideline for future gaze estimation research. Implemented methods and data processing codes are available at


page 1

page 10

page 16


Eye Gaze Estimation: A Survey on Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Human gaze estimation plays a major role in many applications in human–c...

Appearance-Based 3D Gaze Estimation with Personal Calibration

We propose a way to incorporate personal calibration into a deep learnin...

Gaze Estimation Approach Using Deep Differential Residual Network

Gaze estimation, which is a method to determine where a person is lookin...

Investigation of Architectures and Receptive Fields for Appearance-based Gaze Estimation

With the rapid development of deep learning technology in the past decad...

Vulnerability of Appearance-based Gaze Estimation

Appearance-based gaze estimation has achieved significant improvement by...

Detection of Abnormal Behavior with Self-Supervised Gaze Estimation

Due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19, many classes, exams, and meeting...

Confidence-aware 3D Gaze Estimation and Evaluation Metric

Deep learning appearance-based 3D gaze estimation is gaining popularity ...

Please sign up or login with your details

Forgot password? Click here to reset