Attacks and Defenses for Free-Riders in Multi-Discriminator GAN

by   Zilong Zhao, et al.

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are increasingly adopted by the industry to synthesize realistic images. Due to data not being centrally available, Multi-Discriminator (MD)-GANs training framework employs multiple discriminators that have direct access to the real data. Distributedly training a joint GAN model entails the risk of free-riders, i.e., participants that aim to benefit from the common model while only pretending to participate in the training process. In this paper, we conduct the first characterization study of the impact of free-riders on MD-GAN. Based on two production prototypes of MD-GAN, we find that free-riders drastically reduce the ability of MD-GANs to produce images that are indistinguishable from real data, i.e., they increase the FID score – the standard measure to assess the quality of generated images. To mitigate the model degradation, we propose a defense strategy against free-riders in MD-GAN, termed DFG. DFG distinguishes free-riders and benign participants through periodic probing and clustering of discriminators' responses based on a reference response of free-riders, which then allows the generator to exclude the detected free-riders from the training. Furthermore, we extend our defense, termed DFG+, to enable discriminators to filter out free-riders at the variant of MD-GAN that allows peer exchanges of discriminators networks. Extensive evaluation on various scenarios of free-riders, MD-GAN architecture, and three datasets show that our defenses effectively detect free-riders. With 1 to 5 free-riders, DFG and DFG+ averagely decreases FID by 5.22 in comparison to an attack without defense. In a shell, the proposed DFG(+) can effectively defend against free-riders without affecting benign clients at a negligible computation overhead.


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