Clinical Document Classification Using Labeled and Unlabeled Data Across Hospitals

by   Hamed Hassanzadeh, et al.

Reviewing radiology reports in emergency departments is an essential but laborious task. Timely follow-up of patients with abnormal cases in their radiology reports may dramatically affect the patient's outcome, especially if they have been discharged with a different initial diagnosis. Machine learning approaches have been devised to expedite the process and detect the cases that demand instant follow up. However, these approaches require a large amount of labeled data to train reliable predictive models. Preparing such a large dataset, which needs to be manually annotated by health professionals, is costly and time-consuming. This paper investigates a semi-supervised learning framework for radiology report classification across three hospitals. The main goal is to leverage clinical unlabeled data in order to augment the learning process where limited labeled data is available. To further improve the classification performance, we also integrate a transfer learning technique into the semi-supervised learning pipeline . Our experimental findings show that (1) convolutional neural networks (CNNs), while being independent of any problem-specific feature engineering, achieve significantly higher effectiveness compared to conventional supervised learning approaches, (2) leveraging unlabeled data in training a CNN-based classifier reduces the dependency on labeled data by more than 50 fully supervised CNN, and (3) transferring the knowledge gained from available labeled data in an external source hospital significantly improves the performance of a semi-supervised CNN model over their fully supervised counterparts in a target hospital.


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