Harmonic Grassmannian codes

by   Matthew Fickus, et al.

An equi-isoclinic tight fusion frame (EITFF) is a type of Grassmannian code, being a sequence of subspaces of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a given dimension with the property that the smallest spectral distance between any pair of them is as large as possible. EITFFs arise in compressed sensing, yielding dictionaries with minimal block coherence. Their existence remains poorly characterized. Most known EITFFs have parameters that match those of one that arose from an equiangular tight frame (ETF) in a rudimentary, direct-sum-based way. In this paper, we construct new infinite families of non-"tensor-sized" EITFFs in a way that generalizes the one previously known infinite family of them as well as the celebrated equivalence between harmonic ETFs and difference sets for finite abelian groups. In particular, we construct EITFFs consisting of Q planes in ℂ^Q for each prime power Q≥ 4, of Q-1 planes in ℂ^Q for each odd prime power Q, and of 11 three-dimensional subspaces in ℝ^11. The key idea is that every harmonic EITFF – one that is the orbit of a single subspace under the action of a unitary representation of a finite abelian group – arises from a smaller tight fusion frame with a nicely behaved "Fourier transform." Our particular constructions of harmonic EITFFs exploit the properties of Gauss sums over finite fields.


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