DeepAI AI Chat
Log In Sign Up

Inferring Which Medical Treatments Work from Reports of Clinical Trials

by   Eric Lehman, et al.

How do we know if a particular medical treatment actually works? Ideally one would consult all available evidence from relevant clinical trials. Unfortunately, such results are primarily disseminated in natural language scientific articles, imposing substantial burden on those trying to make sense of them. In this paper, we present a new task and corpus for making this unstructured evidence actionable. The task entails inferring reported findings from a full-text article describing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with respect to a given intervention, comparator, and outcome of interest, e.g., inferring if an article provides evidence supporting the use of aspirin to reduce risk of stroke, as compared to placebo. We present a new corpus for this task comprising 10,000+ prompts coupled with full-text articles describing RCTs. Results using a suite of models --- ranging from heuristic (rule-based) approaches to attentive neural architectures --- demonstrate the difficulty of the task, which we believe largely owes to the lengthy, technical input texts. To facilitate further work on this important, challenging problem we make the corpus, documentation, a website and leaderboard, and code for baselines and evaluation available at


Evidence Inference 2.0: More Data, Better Models

How do we most effectively treat a disease or condition? Ideally, we cou...

Understanding Clinical Trial Reports: Extracting Medical Entities and Their Relations

The best evidence concerning comparative treatment effectiveness comes f...

NLI4CT: Multi-Evidence Natural Language Inference for Clinical Trial Reports

How can we interpret and retrieve medical evidence to support clinical d...

Trialstreamer: Mapping and Browsing Medical Evidence in Real-Time

We introduce Trialstreamer, a living database of clinical trial reports....

Jointly Extracting Interventions, Outcomes, and Findings from RCT Reports with LLMs

Results from Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) establish the comparati...

Predicting Intervention Approval in Clinical Trials through Multi-Document Summarization

Clinical trials offer a fundamental opportunity to discover new treatmen...