Knowledge Base Question Answering by Case-based Reasoning over Subgraphs

by   Rajarshi Das, et al.
University of Massachusetts Amherst
University of Southern California

Question answering (QA) over real-world knowledge bases (KBs) is challenging because of the diverse (essentially unbounded) types of reasoning patterns needed. However, we hypothesize in a large KB, reasoning patterns required to answer a query type reoccur for various entities in their respective subgraph neighborhoods. Leveraging this structural similarity between local neighborhoods of different subgraphs, we introduce a semiparametric model with (i) a nonparametric component that for each query, dynamically retrieves other similar k-nearest neighbor (KNN) training queries along with query-specific subgraphs and (ii) a parametric component that is trained to identify the (latent) reasoning patterns from the subgraphs of KNN queries and then apply it to the subgraph of the target query. We also propose a novel algorithm to select a query-specific compact subgraph from within the massive knowledge graph (KG), allowing us to scale to full Freebase KG containing billions of edges. We show that our model answers queries requiring complex reasoning patterns more effectively than existing KG completion algorithms. The proposed model outperforms or performs competitively with state-of-the-art models on several KBQA benchmarks.


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