On the Use of Quality Diversity Algorithms for The Traveling Thief Problem

by   Adel Nikfarjam, et al.

In real-world optimisation, it is common to face several sub-problems interacting and forming the main problem. There is an inter-dependency between the sub-problems, making it impossible to solve such a problem by focusing on only one component. The traveling thief problem (TTP) belongs to this category and is formed by the integration of the traveling salesperson problem (TSP) and the knapsack problem (KP). In this paper, we investigate the inter-dependency of the TSP and the KP by means of quality diversity (QD) approaches. QD algorithms provide a powerful tool not only to obtain high-quality solutions but also to illustrate the distribution of high-performing solutions in the behavioural space. We introduce a MAP-Elite based evolutionary algorithm using well-known TSP and KP search operators, taking the TSP and KP score as behavioural descriptor. Afterwards, we conduct comprehensive experimental studies that show the usefulness of using the QD approach applied to the TTP. First, we provide insights regarding high-quality TTP solutions in the TSP/KP behavioural space. Afterwards, we show that better solutions for the TTP can be obtained by using our QD approach and show that it can improve the best-known solution for a wide range of TTP instances used for benchmarking in the literature.


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