Physical informed neural networks with soft and hard boundary constraints for solving advection-diffusion equations using Fourier expansions

by   Jiaxin Deng, et al.

Deep learning methods have gained considerable interest in the numerical solution of various partial differential equations (PDEs). One particular focus is on physics-informed neural networks (PINNs), which integrate physical principles into neural networks. This transforms the process of solving PDEs into optimization problems for neural networks. In order to address a collection of advection-diffusion equations (ADE) in a range of difficult circumstances, this paper proposes a novel network structure. This architecture integrates the solver, which is a multi-scale deep neural network (MscaleDNN) utilized in the PINN method, with a hard constraint technique known as HCPINN. This method introduces a revised formulation of the desired solution for advection-diffusion equations (ADE) by utilizing a loss function that incorporates the residuals of the governing equation and penalizes any deviations from the specified boundary and initial constraints. By surpassing the boundary constraints automatically, this method improves the accuracy and efficiency of the PINN technique. To address the “spectral bias” phenomenon in neural networks, a subnetwork structure of MscaleDNN and a Fourier-induced activation function are incorporated into the HCPINN, resulting in a hybrid approach called SFHCPINN. The effectiveness of SFHCPINN is demonstrated through various numerical experiments involving advection-diffusion equations (ADE) in different dimensions. The numerical results indicate that SFHCPINN outperforms both standard PINN and its subnetwork version with Fourier feature embedding. It achieves remarkable accuracy and efficiency while effectively handling complex boundary conditions and high-frequency scenarios in ADE.


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