Preserving Privacy in Surgical Video Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence: A Deep Learning Classifier to Identify Out-of-Body Scenes in Endoscopic Videos

by   Joël L. Lavanchy, et al.

Objective: To develop and validate a deep learning model for the identification of out-of-body images in endoscopic videos. Background: Surgical video analysis facilitates education and research. However, video recordings of endoscopic surgeries can contain privacy-sensitive information, especially if out-of-body scenes are recorded. Therefore, identification of out-of-body scenes in endoscopic videos is of major importance to preserve the privacy of patients and operating room staff. Methods: A deep learning model was trained and evaluated on an internal dataset of 12 different types of laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. External validation was performed on two independent multicentric test datasets of laparoscopic gastric bypass and cholecystectomy surgeries. All images extracted from the video datasets were annotated as inside or out-of-body. Model performance was evaluated compared to human ground truth annotations measuring the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC). Results: The internal dataset consisting of 356,267 images from 48 videos and the two multicentric test datasets consisting of 54,385 and 58,349 images from 10 and 20 videos, respectively, were annotated. Compared to ground truth annotations, the model identified out-of-body images with 99.97 ROC AUC on the internal test dataset. Mean ± standard deviation ROC AUC on the multicentric gastric bypass dataset was 99.94±0.07 on the multicentric cholecystectomy dataset, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed deep learning model can reliably identify out-of-body images in endoscopic videos. The trained model is publicly shared. This facilitates privacy preservation in surgical video analysis.


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