Regulating Gatekeeper AI and Data: Transparency, Access, and Fairness under the DMA, the GDPR, and beyond

by   Philipp Hacker, et al.

Artificial intelligence is not only increasingly used in business and administration contexts, but a race for its regulation is also underway, with the EU spearheading the efforts. Contrary to existing literature, this article suggests, however, that the most far-reaching and effective EU rules for AI applications in the digital economy will not be contained in the proposed AI Act - but have just been enacted in the Digital Markets Act. We analyze the impact of the DMA and related EU acts on AI models and their underlying data across four key areas: disclosure requirements; the regulation of AI training data; access rules; and the regime for fair rankings. The paper demonstrates that fairness, in the sense of the DMA, goes beyond traditionally protected categories of non-discrimination law on which scholarship at the intersection of AI and law has so far largely focused on. Rather, we draw on competition law and the FRAND criteria known from intellectual property law to interpret and refine the DMA provisions on fair rankings. Moreover, we show how, based on CJEU jurisprudence, a coherent interpretation of the concept of non-discrimination in both traditional non-discrimination and competition law may be found. The final part sketches specific proposals for a comprehensive framework of transparency, access, and fairness under the DMA and beyond.


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